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How to Close the Valuation Gap
If you’ve ever had your business appraised, you probably had a figure in mind as to what your company was worth. It was only after the valuation consultant left you with their report that you found out just how far off base your estimate was from reality. That’s what the pros call the “valuation gap.” The good thing is that you can close that gap by raising the value of your business. You simply need an action plan. Matt Turpin, a Certified Valuation Analyst and M & A Advisor at Carr, Riggs and Ingram LLC, returns for his 2nd visit on “Deal Talk.” This time, he’ll share some insights about how you can improve your company’s value after the appraiser has come and gone.
Questions Answered For You
- Why might there be a gap between what I estimated the value of my company to be and the number in the valuation report?
- What can a business owner do to close the gap between the valuation they receive and their expectations for their company's value?
- What are the most common range of multiples that might suggest that a company has performed well and is selling at or better than market value?
- Does sweat equity count for anything when valuing my business?
Any type of service industry has that risk of when you sell your business, the customers, patients, clients will not automatically transfer over to the new owner.
Key Takeaways To Remember
- In order to avoid being surprised by the value of your company when beginning the process of selling your business, start the valuation process early and continue to have a business valuation every couple of years so.
- A business is less desirable to buyers if it relies on one or two vendors, or one or two customers.
- Reducing the areas of risk in a business will increase its value.
- Ways to cut expenses, without jeopardizing revenue, and show the highest earnings possible include adjusting officer compensation to industry standards, putting a management team in place so that customers are not dependent upon one or two key employees and broadening your customer base.
Jeff: The results of a business appraisal can be surprising, and sometimes even shocking. If you want to learn how to improve value after a less than desirable appraisal, or how to avoid shocking results in the first place, then you've come to the right place.
From our studio in Southern California, with guest experts from across the country and around the world, this is "Deal Talk." brought to you by Morgan & Westfield, nationwide leader in business sales and appraisals. Now, here's your host, Jeff Allen.
Jeff: Hello and welcome to the web's number one content source for small business owners committed to building a business for eventual sale. Here on "Deal Talk" it's our mission to provide information and guidance from our growing list of trusted experts that you and all small business owners can use that information to help you build your bottom line and improve your company's value.
What's all the big deal then about business appraisals and valuations? Well, sometimes we found out that oftentimes we get those calculations back and they are far less than we expect. At least they're different anyway. Sometimes they're maybe a few thousand or a few $10,000 off what we kind of expected in other times, for most of us anyway. Those folks who order valuations are often mystified by the gap, the difference between what you believe your business might be worth or might have been worth, and what your valuation consultant says. It actually is in fact worthwhile.
I want you to stand up and take notice, or sit forward and take notice of this program, because it is in fact for you if you have had a valuation in the past that did not meet your expectations. And you're not exactly sure what you need to do to bridge the gap between the information that you got back and where you think your business needs to be. And this is particularly important if you have designs on selling your company sometime in the next few years.
Here to talk with us all about this particular subject, Matt Turpin. He's joined us in the past here on "Deal Talk." He's a CPA licensed in Florida and Alabama, and also a certified valuation analyst with Carr, Riggs & Ingram, LLC. Mr. Turpin carries additional designations, including certified mergers and acquisitions professional, and chartered global management accountant. Matt Turpin, welcome back to "Deal Talk." It's good to have you back on the program.
Matt: Great to be back, Jeff. Thank you for having me.
Jeff: Well, it's good to hear the gentleman with the Southern draw back amongst us here and providing his information that we have really been looking forward to you sharing, Matt. I get these numbers back, and the first question that pops to mind, well this can't be right. How do I know that these in fact are right? How do I as a business owner know, Matt, that the valuation that you've calculated for me and my business is in fact complete and accurate?
Matt: That's a great point, Jeff. The quickest way and probably one of the easiest ways is to look at the valuation report. Is the valuation report under the guidelines of a governing body such as the National Association of Certified Valuation Analysts, or NACVA? Or is it under the American Institute of Certified Public Accountant, the Accredited Business Valuator Designation, or the ABV Designation? Those are just two of the designations, but probably the most common when it comes to a CPA-backed valuation credential.
We have guidelines and standards that we have to follow in preparing a business valuation. You're right. A lot of business owners, particularly member-managed businesses, are not particularly thrilled when they see the results of their business valuation. So the best way to not be surprised is to start that process early and fairly regularly, or often, to have a business valuation every couple of years so that you are not surprised when you see the value of your business.
I tell potential clients this almost every meeting. If you are a business owner that is relying upon your business for your retirement, if you had a retirement account with one of the large financial institutions, you would get a monthly if not an annual statement that shows the value of your retirement plan. If you're using the sale of your business more importantly as the indicator of when you can retire, or that money will be used for your retirement, it would be questionable not to have a valuation done every few years, so that you do know the value of your retirement.
There are no two businesses that are alike.
Jeff: Is it flawed thinking on a business owner's part, Matt, to believe that, OK , I get this calculated value here and I'm not exactly thrilled with it. But I'm inclined to believe that I can get more for my company than what these numbers are telling me I can get. Is that wrong for a business owner to think that way and would they in fact be making a mistake by listing their business at a figure that is much higher than that valuation that you've calculated for them?
Matt: The answer to that is probably yes and no. The business owner can list or can ask whatever price they think the business will cost it to for a sales transaction, much like a house.
Matt: The issue is if you have a strategic or a financial buyer, there are certain things called synergies. If a competitor wants to buy another competitor, there may be economy, the scale, where the two businesses combined can make more money than the two business separate. So that's your financial or your synergistic buyers.
In those types of situations, yes, absolutely. There would be a situation where the business could sell for higher than the calculated value. In other situations where it would be a top lieutenant in the company that's buying out the majority shareholder, there could other factors or indicators that bring that value down.
Say, for example, a dentist practice. If a dentist has the key relationships with his or her patients, that really does restrict the value in "handing the baton over." Any type of service industry has that risk of when you sell your business, the customers, patients, clients will not automatically transfer over to the new owner. So that is your risk in selling for less than what the value has arrived at.
Jeff: Joining me again today is Matt Turpin, if you're just kind of listening over someone's shoulder. He's a CPA and CVA, certified mergers and acquisition adviser at Carr, Riggs & Ingram, LLC. Joining us for the second time, today on "Deal Talk." My name is Jeff Allen.
Matt, why is there such a gap between what I had estimated the value of my company to be and the number that you calculated? Where do most of those differences lie?
Matt: Jeff, most of the differences lie between the, it's what's called discounts. It could be a discount for lack of marketability, which, if you're a member-managed, or traditionally what we've known as a smaller business, you've got discounts for lack of marketability. This is not a business that can be bought and sold on a publicly traded market much like the NASDAQ or the New York Stock Exchange.
So you have a discount for lack of marketability, which can range anywhere from below 20% up into the high 30s, maybe even 40%. If you go along RS regulations in determining fair market value, that would reduce the value of the company. You also have a discount for lack of control. If you're selling less than a majority shareholder position or ownership position, which would be 50% or less, then there's a discount that needs to be applied because the buyer does not have control of the cash.
The biggest reason why there will be a gap between perceived value and what we could call actual value, which would be the value that's derived from a business valuation engagement, is going to be the capitalization rate. A capitalization rate is going to be the inverse of a multiple. A lot of people are very familiar with the multiple.
Let's say if I have a company that's grossing a million dollars a year in revenue, I want to use a multiple of three to sell the business, I would put just a wild guess in the air saying that the business is worth $3 million. Capitalization rates build up to an actual indicator on what to take, the quality of earnings, which is going to be your income after true business expenses.
There are a lot of situations where you get higher than industry average officer compensation. And you may be paying family members through the business that don't actually work day-to-day in the business. Those are normalizing adjustments to arrive at a quality of earnings from the business operations. You apply that number to a capitalization rate. And that capitalization rate is going to be built up at different risk factors. For example, somebody was going to spend a million dollars either putting it into a CD or some safe investment vehicle, it's a much lower risk than going out and buying an operating business.
So you have different risk factors that's going to be just the general risk of buying the equity of a stock. You've got the general risk of buying a small company and you've got the specific company risk, meaning the company that a potential buyer is looking at for the subject company, and when I say subject company, I mean the business that an individual is looking at buying.
Or if an individual selling their business, what is the risk associated with selling that business? Are there key employees that really produce a lot of the income or create a lot of the customer loyalty, that if those key employees were not there it would seriously affect the revenue of the company?
When you look at these factors that create the gap between a business owner's perceived value, a lot of times you talk to a business owner and they've already got an idea in their head of what the value of the business is, whether that's through talking to competitors, or talking with peers in the industry for multiples, or reading industry periodicals that tell you this is what the business should be worth. There are no two businesses that are alike.
That can go either in the positive or the negative for the business owner. If I'm a business owner, and actually, Jeff, this is what got me into business valuation, is I had a client that was very profitable, had a very well-oiled machine in his business. And he was offered, I can't remember the exact number … let's say three times his revenue as a multiple to sell his business.
My first question was why not five as a multiple, why not six? Who made the rule that it's got to be three, particularly in this kind of business because he didn't have to work the business. It was just a residual cash flow to this individual.
So when you talk about multiples and how much of my business work based upon a multiple there may be two businesses in the same industry, whether they're competitors or not, it doesn't matter in this example. But one business may be worth two and three times as much as the other one because there may be systems in place, you may have a better management team. You may have a better financial structure. You may have better financial margins. You may have, whether it's longer contracts, the options are limitless of why one business in the same industry values differently than another business in the same industry.
I tell potential clients this almost every meeting. If you are a business owner that is relying upon your business for your retirement, if you had a retirement account with one of the large financial institutions, you would get a monthly if not an annual statement that shows the value of your retirement plan.
Jeff: I'll cut you off there because you've thrown... I'm putting myself in the place of a business owner who doesn't have a CFO or an accountant who can really help them understand the weight of what you're talking about, because there's a lot of the terminology here and some things that I think a lot of people probably may not have a very strong understanding of.
But really, who is the person, who is the professional that I would talk to who would be able to help me, or help my accountant, or CFO, or whoever? Actually assign the multiple that we believe would provide us with an accurate valuation for how much our business could be worth if in fact we have designs on selling this or becoming involved in maybe an M&A deal of some kind in the next three to five years?
Matt: Jeff, I'm a little bit biased, but it would be best to use an individual that has a designation in business valuation.
Matt: Because they're going to have industry data across the board. Not just a few industries but data across the board that not only do you arrive at a value independently but we also have access to databases of what we call a sanity check.
If I arrive at a value, just an example, of a dental practice and come up with $2 million as a value, based upon cash flow and earnings, I have access to a database that says either I'm on base or I am way out of my league based upon transactions that have happened in the past.
Again, no two companies are alike, but that's what we call a sanity check, like a rule of thumb that says, "This is my valuation. It is well within an industry norm based upon the transaction that'll happen." Or if the company is strong enough, whether that would be your management team's financial history earnings, then can this company require a higher sales price because they're stronger than the industry or stronger than actual transactions that have taken place?
Jeff: What have you found to be probably the most common range of multiples that might suggest that a company has performed well and is selling at or better than market value?
Matt: Jeff, you're going to see capitalization. It's going to be anywhere from 20% to maybe even 50%. The lower the capitalization rate the higher the price. In terms of multiple, a capitalization rate of 20% would mean a multiple of five. That's how many times it could fit into a hundred.
A capitalization rate of 20 equals a multiple of five. A capitalization rate of 50 equals the multiple of two. So it's going to depend on the business itself. Largely it does depend on the industry, because that's the track record that an industry specialist is going to go off of.
Matt: Anywhere from 20 to 50, which is going to be a multiple of two to five.
Jeff: OK. Have you ever seen anything higher than that?
Matt: Oh yeah. In certain industries you may have a multiple of 10.
Jeff: OK. And that's a nice pay day right there.
Matt: Yes. It really is a nice pay day. There's a lot of factors that built up into that, but most of the factors are built around risk. What is the risk of purchasing that company?
Jeff: Matt, I'm going to take a short break, but when we get back what I'd like to do is I'd like to start to get into over the part of the conversation where we start to talk about the types of things that we might be able to do to, kind of, get that valuation moving in a better direction to kind of close that gap between what we assumed our business might have been worth and what a professional such as yourself is telling us our business is actually worth based on his calculations and going through.
I'm going to continue my conversation with Matt Turpin on valuations and how you can now close the gap or start thinking about ways to close that gap between what your expectations for your company's value was and what it could be when "Deal Talk" resumes right after this.
If you'd like to share your knowledge and expertise on any subject related to selling businesses or helping business owners improve the value of their companies, we'd like to talk with you about joining us as a guest on a future edition of "Deal Talk." Interested? Contact our host Jeff Allen directly. Just send a brief email with "I'd like to be a guest" in the subject line. In a brief message include your name, title, area of specialty and contact information, and send it to email@example.com, that's firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Jeff: You can listen to "Deal Talk" on Stitcher, Libsyn and iTunes. And we also have a fourth channel for you, morganandwestfield.com. That is the only place where you can listen to the show and get the complete show notes to go along with it. So of course you could read along with every word that you hear us talking about here on "Deal Talk" while you're on the morganandwestfield.com website.
Or simply take and print hat PDF out, copy it to your machine, save it for later. You can come back later for easy reference. In that way you've got it all in writing. Some people think it's easier to take that writing with them depending on where they want to go or if they want to share certain key parts of our conversation with a friend or a colleague.
Once again, that site is morganandwestfield.com for not only the podcast but the complete show notes. My name is Jeff Allen, joined once again today by Mr. Matt Turpin, and he's really an expert in the area of M&A but specifically having him on today to talk about valuations.
We want to aspire, I think, really Matt, to reach a valuation that we're pleased with and one that would stand up during the sale of our business. So how do we start to bridge that gap and get from where we are, reality, to where we want to be, which is what we might consider ideal later on?
Matt: That's a great question, Jeff, and a question that we address quite often. Typically I suggest that business owners have a five-year plan to sell. Don't just decide that next year you're going to sell. Because there will be that shock of what the perceived value is and the price that the business could actually demand on the market.
Of course this list is not all inclusive, but we've all heard the term “cash is king.” And that is true when it comes to most business valuations. You want to have the highest quality of earnings as possible that your business can earn. When Is say quality of earnings, meaning income minus your actual business expenses. If you've got a business that doesn't really require you to travel yet you've got some travel in there, of course that reduces your earnings.
Taking a three-year, forward-looking approach on cutting expenses that can be cut without jeopardizing revenue and showing the highest earnings as possible. Of course, that's going to be the hardest thing to do but the easiest way to increase value. You could adjust officer compensation to industry standards. You can put a management team in place so that customers are not dependent upon one or two key employees. You can broaden your vendor base if that's applicable to your business. You can broaden your customer base.
Nobody wants to buy a business that relies on one or two vendors, or one or two customers. Again, that goes all into the risk of buying the company. If I can cover it with an umbrella, the main objective in growing the business value would be to reduce the areas of risk in your business. Of course, that cannot be eliminated 100%, but reducing those risks of a potential buyer is going to be increasing the value of your business.
Jeff: I'm sure that you've probably gotten questions like this before. We're all human and some of us have some questions that quite frankly you might roll your eyes at from time-to-time after a while, Matt, someone in your position.
When you have a chance to advise a company about maybe on plans that they have about moving forward with a sale or preparing their company for a sale and things have not been going well admittedly. The proof is in the numbers. And things have been tough the last couple of quarters, the last few quarters, and you've got someone, a CEO and his team have put in a lot of long hours into their business.
Doesn't sweat equity account for something? When it comes to you going out and looking at this company and providing a comprehensive valuation. Is there any possibility that there's some kind of value that you can assign to effort? I don't know how else to put it.
Matt: That is a very popular item.
Jeff: I thought so.
Matt: When you talk about sweat equity, if that's what equity has generated, cash flow, yes, of course. But you're measuring the cash flow, you're not measuring the sweat equity, because that's when equity has turned into cash flow. If you look at sweat equity alone, somebody putting in long hours and is not producing any results, then there's no other answer than, no, the sweat equity does not generate value. But if that's what equity turns into, relationships, potential contacts, let's say a deeper vendor base, a wider potential customer base, another product, then, yes, that's when equity could be of value, and it could be of value to a specific buyer.
There is no flat line answer. No. Sweat equity does not generate and give value because sweat equity can’t generate value.
Jeff: I've got just a couple of moments left here, Matt, in the program today. What is wrong with the ideology that I can improve the value of my company by strictly going out and just working harder to generate greater revenue? If I go out and I increase my revenue by 25%-35%, doesn't that take and translate to something similar in terms of value later on?
Matt: It can. It depends on how much you've had to spend to generate that increase. If you've had to spend more on advertising, if you had to spend more in commissions. If the bottom line, so to say, is not increased, then there could be a situation where you're just spinning your wheels. If it does create a greater economy of scale, where an increase in revenue decreases the overall percentage of expenses or a certain expense classification, then absolutely it can help.
Jeff: Matt Turpin, I appreciate your time on the program today. No doubt there are business owners in your neighborhood, those listening to this program right now who might want to get in touch with you to talk about their particular situation, how can they reach you?
Typically I suggest that business owners have a five-year plan to sell. Don't just decide that next year you're going to sell. Because there will be that shock of what the perceived value is and the price that the business could actually demand on the market.
Matt: Sure. They can reach me through my email, which is email@example.com. They can reach me at 850-337-3241. They can also go to our website, cricpa.com, Carr, Riggs & Ingram. There are a number of ways. You can also find me through the National Association of Certified Valuation Analysts. I'm in their database there.
Jeff: And that means that you're pretty good, and we appreciate you, Matt, for making time for us in your schedule before you head on out for the day. It's been a pleasure, and we look forward to having you again on our program at some point in the future. Thank you.
Matt: Thank you, Jeff. I always enjoy talking with you.
Jeff: That's Matt Turpin, CPA, CVA and a certified mergers and acquisition adviser at Carr, Riggs & Ingram, LLC.
Let us know how we're doing on "Deal Talk," won't you? We would love to hear more from you. Send us your comments, compliments and criticisms to firstname.lastname@example.org. Once again, that's email@example.com.
"Deal Talk" is brought to you by Morgan & Westfield, a nationwide leader in business sales and appraisals. Learn more at morganandwestfield.com or by calling 888-693-7834. Again, 888-693-7834. I'm Jeff Allen, here's to your success.
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